What is nutritional deficiency anemia? what causes nutritional deficiency anemia?

What is nutritional deficiency anemia? what causes nutritional deficiency anemia?

Nutritional or vitamin deficiency anemia refers to a reduced red blood cell count due to a poor diet which is deficient in iron, folate and/or Vitamin B12.

Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially in pregnant women and young children. It is a disease with multiple causes, both nutritional (vitamin and mineral deficiencies) and non-nutritional (infection) that frequently co-occur. It is assumed that one of the most common contributing factors is iron deficiency, and anemia resulting from iron deficiency is considered to be one of the top ten contributors to the global burden of disease. In iron deficiency anemia, the red cells appear abnormal and are unusually small (microcytic) and pale (hypochromic). The pallor of the red cells reflects their low hemoglobin content.

Some affliction facts are as follows: global prevalence of anemia in preschool aged children is 47.4%, global prevalence of anemia in pregnant women is 41.8%, global prevalence of anemia in non-pregnant women is 30.2%, 818 million women worldwide (both pregnant and non-pregnant) and young children suffer from anemia and over half of these, approximately 520 million, live in Asia.

What are the symptoms Nutritional Deficiency Anemia?

A symptom is something the patient senses and describes, while a sign is something other people, such as the doctor notice. For example, drowsiness may be a symptom while dilated pupils may be a sign.

Vitamin deficiency anemia is characterized by pallor (reduced amount of oxyhemoglobin in skin or mucous membrane), fatigue and weakness. Because it tends to develop slowly, adaptation occurs and the disease often goes unrecognized for some time. In severe cases, dyspnea (trouble breathing) can occur. Unusual obsessive food cravings, known as pica, may develop. Pagophagia or pica for ice is a very specific symptom and may disappear with correction of iron deficiency anemia. Hair loss and lightheadedness can also be associated with iron deficiency anemia.

Additional symptoms may include: constipation, sleepiness, tinnitus, palpitations, hair loss, fainting or feeling faint, depression, breathlessness on exertion, twitching muscles, tingling, numbness, or burning sensations, missed or heavy menstrual cycle.

Anemia goes undetected in many people, and symptoms can be minor or vague. The signs and symptoms can be related to the anemia itself, or the underlying cause. Most commonly, people with anemia report non-specific symptoms of a feeling of weakness, or fatigue, general malaise and sometimes poor concentration.

What are the causes of Nutritional Deficiency Anemia?

A cause of deficiency anemia, particularly iron, is the ulcer bacteria. The diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia requires further investigation as to its cause. It can be a sign of other disease, such as colon cancer, which will cause the loss of blood in the stool.

In adults, 60% of patients with iron deficiency anemia may have underlying gastrointestinal disorders leading to chronic blood loss. In addition to dietary insufficiency, malabsorption, chronic blood loss, diversion of iron to fetal erythropoiesis during pregnancy, intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria or other forms of chronic blood loss should all be considered.

Diagnosing Nutritional Deficiency Anemia

Anemia is often first shown by routine blood tests, which generally include a complete blood count.

Traditionally, a definitive diagnosis requires a demonstration of depleted body iron stores by performing a bone marrow aspiration, with the marrow stained for iron. Because this is invasive and painful, while a clinical trial of iron supplementation is inexpensive and non-traumatic, patients are often treated based on clinical history alone.

What are the treatment options for Nutritional Deficiency Anemia?

The treatment of deficiency anemia, whether it be in children or adults, is with vitamin supplements and mineral rich foods. Food sources of iron in particular include meat, poultry, eggs, vegetables and fortified cereals.

If anemia does not respond to oral treatments, it may be necessary to administer parenterally using a drip or hemodialysis. Parenteral iron in particular involves risks of fever, chills, backache, myalgia, dizziness, syncope, rash and anaphylactic shock. A follow up blood test is essential to demonstrate whether the treatment has been effective.

Preventing Nutritional Deficiency Anemia

A diet that meets the dietary guidelines will ordinarily have enough iron, folate, and vitamin B 12 to prevent anemia. Exceptions include women of childbearing age who are well advised to take supplemental iron and folic acid, and preterm infants who are often prescribed iron supplements. Ask your doctor if you should take these supplements.

In addition, a regular physical exam often includes a complete blood count, so undergoing regular check-ups can detect nutritional anemia in an early stage.

Nutritional Deficiency Anemias (Video Medical And Professional 2020).

Section Issues On Medicine: Medical practice